San Casciano dei Bagni is the third largest municipality in Europe for the flow of thermal water, and derives its symbol and name from its thermal springs. Legend has it that it was Porsenna who founded the Bagni Chiusini and that the emperor Ottaviano Augusto came here to treat himself. The pleasant combination of thermal water, clayey soil and rich vegetation allowed human settlement on the hill of San Casciano Bagni. The ex voto in the Cassianensi rooms, the large area known as “suburbium” next to the ancient parish church of Santa Maria ad balnea, and the ancient fortress confirm this hypothesis. With the rebirth of Italian thermal tourism in the 13th century, the thermal structures around the springs of Ficoncella and Bagno Grande were improved, leaving the pre-inhabited centre newfound life. At that time, San Casciano became the residence of the local feudal family Visconti di Campiglia, who tried to maintain their independence from Siena and Orvieto until the final submission to Siena in 1412. Since Siena granted various privileges to its newly conquered territories, in this period the thermal baths prospered. After the raid by the troops of Vitellozzo Vitelli in 1494, a period of wars began and led to the Medici family domain in almost all of the Tuscan territory during the second half of 1500.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, a local nobility linked to Siena settled in and led to the improvement and embellishment of the palaces where they lived. The Palazzo Arcipretura was built in this period and became the chapter house of the Collegiate church of San Leonardo. The Palazzo Pubblico was realized in the same period and has housed the city authorities since the mid-fifteenth century.
Aurelio Manni lived during this period; he was a local who became one of the principal collaborators of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. At the beginning of the 17th century the thermal baths had a new momentum and attracted people from all over Europe. To underline the baths prestige, in 1607 Ferdinando de’ Medici had a portico built on the source of Ficoncella. Later the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo I d’Asburgo Lorena had a new road built to connect the area with the Roman road (the present Cassia). In 1777 San Casciano dei Bagni, Celle sul Rigo, Fighine, Camporsevoli and Piazze were gathered under one single municipality (the last two would then be transferred to Cetona). Later in time, failure to comply with the new thermal standards led San Casciano dei Bagni to a gradual decline and a secondary role if compared to the nearby thermal towns. After this the rebirth of the territory took place starting from the 30s of the last century.
Atius modignam sam coreseq uibus, everibus dolent, con cum quate sitios simus. La earchic aboratem. Et eium sit audant mi, tendae cor aut eationse nimpellab inis int. Alic te vitae perum nobis delenda alit eum rati ipsum abores aut eos sus.